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本文摘要:Robots in factories dont resemble R2-D2, the charming electronic handyman in Star Wars films. They tend to be faceless machines doing heavy, repetitive chores. Often they are sealed in cages so they dont knock someones head off when they s


Robots in factories dont resemble R2-D2, the charming electronic handyman in Star Wars films. They tend to be faceless machines doing heavy, repetitive chores. Often they are sealed in cages so they dont knock someones head off when they swing a steel arm. 工厂里的机器人长得并不像影片《星球大战》(Star Wars)里那个冷笑话的机器人阿图(R2-D2),而是一些没脸部的机器,专门从事一些重复性的重型工作。它们往往被堵塞在铁笼之内,以免钢臂挥舞时磕碰到旁边的工人。Now, cheaper and more advanced sensor technology promises to let robots work in closer proximity to people, without maiming or bumping into them. 如今,随着传感器技术的变革和成本减少,机器人将能在更加切合人类的区域工作,而会伤到到人类同事。

Companies including Japans Kawada Industries Inc. and Fanuc Corp. (6954.TO) and Switzerland-based ABB Ltd. (ABB, ABBN.VX) are developing dexterous robots to perform such delicate tasks as assembling smart phones-something now typically done by nimble-fingered women in China. 日本的川田工业株式会社(Kawada Industries Inc.)、发那科公司(Fanuc Corp.)和总部坐落于瑞士的ABB公司等企业都在研究动作灵活的机器人,使其专门从事一些精细化的工作,如组装智能手机等。目前,这种装配工作一般都依赖中国女工的灵活双手来已完成。If these experimental robots pan out, they may cut the labor costs of consumer-electronic product companies, reducing the allure of low-wage countries. 如果这些目前还正处于试验阶段的机器人需要普及推展,将有可能减少消费类电子企业的用工成本,从而上升发达国家将生产线移往低成本国家的趋势。

The aim isnt to shoo humans out of factories. It is to give people more efficient tools, says Nicolas de Keijser, ABBs global product manager for small robots.There are things that people do better than robots, such as improvising or quickly adapting to design changes, he says. That will remain so. ABB公司的小型机器人全球产品经理尼古拉斯德凯瑟(Nicolas de Keijser)说道,用于机器人的目的并不是要把工人赶出有工厂,而是为人类获取更加有效率的工具。德凯瑟说道,“有些事情由人来做到要比机器做到得更佳”,比如即兴调整或较慢适应环境产品设计变化等,“而且今后也将不会这样。

” Today, robots are used mostly in making cars and semiconductors or other goods produced in high volumes and requiring force or precision beyond human levels. They are good in warehouses, too. In March, Amazon.com Inc. (AMZN) announced it is paying $775 million to buy Kiva Systems Inc., a maker of squat, cube-shaped robots that move products around shipping centers. 现在,机器人主要应用于汽车和半导体等产品的生产上。这类产品的产量很高,拒绝的加工力量或细致程度远超过人类的水平。此外,机器人在仓储管理中也很管用。

2012年3月,亚马逊公司(Amazon.com Inc.)宣告耗资7.75亿美元并购Kiva Systems Inc.公司,后者专门生产在运输中心用作移动仓储物品的矮胖结实的立方形机器人。Kawadas new NextAge robot, whose sensor eyes give it a passing resemblance to the movie character Wall-E, is capable of replacing or collaborating with humans. The robots cost about $90,000 for the basic model. 川田公司新的发售的NextAge机器人有一双传感器眼睛,外型与电影《机器人总动员》中的清理型机器人瓦力(Wall-E)很相近,它能“替代人类专门从事特定工作,或与人类协作已完成一项工作。”这款机器人的基本款售价大约为九万美元。

Japanese industrial conglomerate Hitachi Ltd. (6501.TO) introduced a NextAge robot last September to a factory outside of Tokyo that makes computer storage products. There, NextAge puts a cover over each hard-disk drives fan and tightens screws. This simple task, once handled by a person, shaves off nearly a minute of production per disk drive-a big time saver over the span of thousands of devices-and lets the human workers assemble other types of parts. 2011年9月,日本大型产业集团日立公司(Hitachi Ltd.)在东京郊外一家生产计算机内存的工厂投入使用NextAge机器人,由机器人来给硬盘驱动器的风扇再加盖子并拧紧螺丝。这项工作很非常简单,以前由人工已完成,由机器人接掌后,每个硬盘的生产时间增加将近一分钟──考虑到硬盘数以千计的产量,这可以节约大量时间──解放出来的人力则用作装配其他零部件。Another Japanese company, Glory Ltd. (6457.OK), started using NextAge in November 2010 to install a tiny part in its money-sorting equipment for retail stores. The company found that using the robot saves labor costs and brings the defect rate near zero, which is not possible for human workers, a Glory spokesman said. Glory now has 10 NextAge robots in the factory north of Tokyo. 另一家日本企业光荣公司(Glory Ltd.)于2010年11月开始用于NextAge机器人,用作加装其为零售商店生产的货币处置设备上的一个小部件。


ABB is also developing a humanoid-like robot that can squeeze into small work spaces and learn new tasks quickly. The dual-arm concept robot will be agile enough to assemble consumer-electronic products, among other things, ABB says. ABB公司也在研发一种人型机器人,它能在狭小的场所工作,并很快学会新的工作任务。公司回应,这款“双臂概念型机器人”十分灵活,需要用作装配消费类电子产品,还能专门从事其他一些工作。

In some cases, Mr. de Keijser says, these robots will be interchangeable with people, who could fill in on assembly work while the robots are being reprogrammed for a new product design, for instance. ABB hopes to introduce new robots and related equipment to assemble small parts within the next 12 to 36 months, he says. 德凯瑟说道,在有些情况下,这类机器人将可与工人交错用于。比如说,在对机器人新的编程以适应环境新的产品设计时,可以由工人先顶一阵子。ABB公司期望在未来一到三年内发售需要组装小型零部件的新款机器人及涉及设备。

Fanuc, meanwhile, says its new M-1iA robots are being used to assemble such things as electrical fuses and chainsaws. 发那科公司回应,其新款的M-1iA机器人能用作组装电子熔线和链锯等产品。In theory, robots already can make just about everything. But they arent very flexible. If a part isnt exactly where it is supposed to be, the robot cant adapt as a person would. Another problem is that programming them to do assembly work can take months. Because product life cycles are short in consumer electronics, manufacturers cant wait for reprogramming every time a design changes. 从理论上谈,机器人早已完全可以专门从事任何工作,只是不过于灵活性而已。




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