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教会新风潮 教皇应当更相信科技

教会新风潮 教皇应当更相信科技

本文摘要:The shocking thing about the papal encyclical Laudate Si is not that it was leaked in advance nor even that it embraces the idea that most emissions of greenhouse gases are the result of human activity. The thing that should shock readers


The shocking thing about the papal encyclical Laudate Si is not that it was leaked in advance nor even that it embraces the idea that most emissions of greenhouse gases are the result of human activity. The thing that should shock readers is its attack on science and technology — the very tools, indeed the only tools, which offer a solution to climate change.对于教皇方济各公开发表的为题《赞美你》(Laudato Si)的通谕,令人震惊之处不在于它被提早泄漏,甚至也不在于它反对的观点,即大部分温室气体废气是人类活动的结果。应该让读者愤慨的是它对科学技术的反击,而科技才是是为气候变化获取解决方案的工具(只不过也是唯一工具)。

(右图为一名修女在梵蒂冈读者教皇方济各的《赞美你》(Laudato Si)通谕)I am not a student of theology and therefore do not claim to understand the subtleties of the Catholic Church’s teaching on science. But since the Pope has moved outside his own natural territory and into energy policy, some response seems appropriate.我并非一名自学神学的学生,因此无法声称解读天主教会科学教义的细枝末节。但是,既然教皇远超过了自己的领地,投身于能源政策领域,我们作出一些反应或许是适合的。From a distance, Pope Francis seems to embody decency. He is modest, frugal, concerned for the poor and hostile to the creepier side of the church hierarchy in Rome and beyond. That makes him stand out in a world of shallow and cynical “leaders”. He commands millions of followers and his words deserve to be taken seriously whether one is a Catholic or not.从远处看,教皇方济各或许是正派的化身。

他谦虚、俭朴、关心穷困大众,而且赞成罗马和其他地区教会系统的阴暗面。这使他在当今世界平庸而犬儒主义的“领导人”里脱颖而出。他号令着数以百万计的追随者,不论你是不是天主教徒,他的话都有一点认真思考。But if you read the encyclical there is a flaw in the argument that undermines the credibility of the whole text. It is perhaps best summed up by paragraph 110 of the document, which deserves to be quoted in full:但如果你通读这则教皇通谕,就不会找到其论据有一个瑕疵伤害了整个文本的可信度。

文中第110段或许最明了地体现了这一点,在这里有一点被全段提到:“It can be said that many problems of today’s world stem from the tendency, at times unconscious, to make the method and aims of science and technology an epistemological paradigm which shapes the lives of individuals and the workings of society. The effects of imposing this model on reality as a whole, human and social, are seen in the deterioration of the environment, but this is just one sign of a reductionism which affects every aspect of human and social life. We have to accept that technological products are not neutral, for they create a framework which ends up conditioning lifestyles and shaping social possibilities along the lines dictated by the interests of certain powerful groups. Decisions which may seem purely instrumental are in reality decisions about the kind of society we want to build.”“可以说道,当今世界的许多问题源自(常常是无意识的)这样一种偏向,即让科学技术的方法和目标沦为塑造成个人生活和社会运作的认识论范式。对人类和社会现实整体实行这种模式,导致的影响展现出在环境好转上,但这只是影响人类和社会生活方方面面的修改论的一个标志。我们必需否认,科技产品不是中性的,因为它们创立了一个框架,最后根据某些强劲集团的利益来影响生活方式,塑造成社会可能性。

那些奇特纯属工具性的要求,实质上要求了我们要建构什么样的社会。”This is one among many examples of a critique of science that runs through the whole document. This must be disspiriting, to put it mildly, to the many Catholics who have been involved in research on climate change over the last 20 years and more. The very problem of climate change was identified by scientific analysis. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the IPCC, is composed of scientists whose conclusion about the causation of climate change and the associated risks if it continues unchecked have brought the issue to public attention across the world. Those scientists did not rely on prayer but on hard work, often extending the limits of what was previously known. Their work is what separates them from the deniers of climate change whose belief is based on faith rather than facts.这是跨越整篇通谕的抨击科学的许多相比较之一。这一定会让(说道得含蓄些)许多在过去20多年里参予研究气候变化的天主教徒深感失望。气候变化这个问题不能通过科学分析确认。


他们的工作把他们与那些坚称气候变化的人区分出去,后者的信念创建在信仰(而非事实)的基础上。Having identified the problem, what are the solutions? There is no single answer. Pope Francis repeatedly calls for a change in behaviour. That is all well and good but for many people, especially the world’s poorest, such a behavioural change can only happen if they are offered a viable alternative to burning coal or other fossil fuels. Every possible alternative I can think of comes back to science — either in the form of existing technology or scientific advances that have yet to be made. That includes electric vehicles which would reduce oil consumption, smart meters which would control and limit energy use, carbon capture and storage, clean coal technology, advanced batteries and other storage technologies, photovoltaics and advanced materials. The list could go on — and indeed fills up hundreds of pages of the latest review of Energy Technology Perspectives from the International Energy Agency.找到问题之后,解决方案是什么呢?答案不是唯一的。教皇方济各再三敦促人类转变自身不道德。


当然还有很多——在国际能源署(IEA)近期公开发表的《能源技术仔细观察》(Energy Technology Perspectives)中,有几百页的篇幅叙述此类技术。Scientists are advancing these technologies across the world — in companies and in universities by individuals who believe they are doing something good for the world. The encyclical undermines their efforts.世界各地企业和高校的科学家们都在前进这些技术,他们坚信自己正在做到对世界有益的事。教皇通谕对他们的希望没协助。If these efforts ceased today I do not know what could take their place. The encyclical implies that climate change is a problem of the rich world consuming too much. One can see why the US. Republicans led by Jeb Bush do not like it. But in reality, the challenge of climate change now is not focused on the US or Europe, where energy demand has stopped growing and where the carbon intensity of GDP declines year by year. The problem comes from the growing populations of south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa — areas that between them will have some 1.5bn to 2bn more citizens in 20 years’ time than they do today. Every citizen needs energy and, although many will subsist on less than they need, tens of millions will become consumers of commercial supplies of coal and oil which will generate more and more emissions. Unless, that is, science can offer a lower-cost alternative.如果这些希望今天负于,我想不出还有什么可以替代它们。


教皇通谕似乎,气候变化是发达国家消费过多的问题。我们可以解读,为什么以杰布布什(Jeb Bush)派的美国共和党人士不讨厌它。但实质上,如今气候变化挑战的焦点并不在美国或欧洲,因为美欧的能源需求已暂停快速增长,其国内生产总值(GDP)的碳排放强度也在大幅上升。问题在于南亚以及撒哈拉以南非洲地区的人口快速增长——这两个地区的人口将在未来20年减少大约15亿至20亿。

每个公民都必须能源,虽然很多人得到充足的能源,不能只得为生,但最少数千万人将沦为商业化煤炭和石油供应的消费者,从而造成更加多的废气——除非科学可以获取一种低成本的替代品。The Pope calls for a change in behaviour. He is right. But the change should not just come from those who consume too much and who give no care to the environmental impact of their actions. Real change should start with a shift in the mindset of those who remain trapped in the belief that the products of science and technology must always be bad. Knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge to meet human needs can be positive in every sense.教皇敦促人类转变自己的不道德。他说道的到底。




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